- A-Z Animals
Javan rhinoceroses are rhinos that had a historical range across Java, Sumatra, Southeast Asia, all the way through China into India. The current range, however, is only in a protected area in western Java. They are the second largest mammal in Indonesia after the Asian elephant.
Size: These rhinos are around 10-12 feet in length and 4.6-5.6 ft in height.
Weight: They weigh between 1,982 and 3,083 lbs.
Horn length: Their horns are made up of the same material as human fingernails, and can grow to a length of 10 inches.
Color: Their body is a hazy grey with a mosaicked appearance. The skin looks like it is armor-plated.
Sexual Dimorphism: Only male rhinos have horns.
The Javan rhinoceros had three subspecies, of which only one remains extant now:
They can only be found in the Ujung Kulon National Park on Java’s western tip.
They inhabit thick, low-lying, tropical rainforests. They are fond of places with lots of water and mud wallows.
Being browsing herbivores, they are known to feed on plant material like twigs, shoots, young leaves, and fruits. It is thought that they eat approximately 110 pounds of food per day.
The reproduction rate for Javan rhinos is slow, usually every 4-5 years. There is no fixed breeding season, and the gestation period is around 15-16 months after which a single calf is born.
The offspring becomes mobile shortly after birth. It stays with its mother and is eventually weaned after a year or two. Female Javan rhinoceroses reach sexual maturity after 5-7 years of age, while males take longer, around 10 years.
These rhinos live for around 30-45 years.
There are limited studies on the sounds made by Javan rhinos, but it is thought that they are much quieter than their nearby cousins, the Indian and Sumatran Rhinoceroses.
The massive herbivores do not have any natural predators in the wild.
The IUCN lists the Javan rhinoceros under their ‘Critically Endangered’ category.
These rhinos are one of the rarest mammals on earth, with an estimated population of 68 individuals remaining in the wild. The species has been poached to near extinction for centuries for their horns, which are used in eastern medicine. The national park the population currently thrives in is a protected area, and hunting rhinos is illegal.